Effect of technological innovation and application on SMEs in Pakistan: an overview of the dairy sector

Khalid, Sikandar Feroz (2022) Effect of technological innovation and application on SMEs in Pakistan: an overview of the dairy sector. Doctoral thesis, University of Wales Trinity Saint David.

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Pakistan's livestock sector, notably the dairy sector, contributes little at the national and household levels, despite its potential and enormous population. Inefficient livestock output due to traditional production methods, substandard breeds, poor feeding, poor housing conditions, inadequate health care and services, and insufficient capital investment are all contributing causes of the sector's low output level. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to explore the status of technological innovation, identify the factors affecting it, develop and evaluate the framework for enhancing the innovation capability in dairy farms through knowledge sharing. The present study is designed for two reasons: (1) Studies on technological innovation in rural dairy sectors have been carried out previously. Yet, the research into this trend in South Asia is limited. Research with a specific focus on the Pakistani dairy industry is even more so; therefore, the current study will update the body of literature in the context mentioned earlier (2). Despite the technological advancement in the dairy industry growing rapidly, the Pakistani dairy industry comparatively lacks in technological innovation despite the significant potential to grow, so that the current study will help the government, marketers, and dairy owners develop effective strategies and frameworks. Following an extensive literature review, the researcher develops a conceptual framework that extends the existing framework of Dependency Theory and Appropriate Technology Theory. These theories have been selected for particular emphasis here because they deal explicitly with the choice of techniques in developing countries. Moreover, taken together, they address, or allow being addressed, the range of issues that are raised by the research questions outlined earlier. The mixed-method approach was applied to use the strength and advantage of both quantitative and qualitative methods while eradicating the weaknesses associated with each of them. A close-ended survey questionnaire collected the quantitative data from 100 randomly selected dairy suppliers and entrepreneurs. At the same time, the qualitative data for the study was collected from 8 rural small and medium-sized dairy organisations owners. Microsoft Excel 2019 was used for quantitative data analysis, and thematic analysis was used to interpret qualitative data. Findings from the present study indicated that implications for the use of technology are speed, efficiency, and effectiveness. However, most of the rural sector in Pakistan is without electricity and consumes raw milk in rural localities devoid of milk processing capabilities. It also implies that local 6 innovation in the existing dairy practices in rural Pakistan has not progressed as the supplier matches the demand characteristics of rural consumers. The rural diaries serve specific rural catchment areas in and around the village, which does not store raw milk due to its perishability. Neither has shown any evidence of technology to produce a wide variety of milk by-products of human consumption. The non-availability of technology is plenty with awareness, education, from environmental surroundings, is evident. The role of influencers like the Pakistan government at central and provincial levels has shown evidence in policy making initiatives, having the capabilities of infusing technology like genetic technology in breeding, fodder with nutrition, medical support through a veterinary doctor for animal health and well-being important from the functional perspective of development. The present research concluded, it is evident that the problem is complex the solution is not straightforward, as the diverse perspective in the responses has opened debates on the possibility of solutions. The location-based disadvantage for the rural small dairy farmers is a structural issue that requires an innovative solution both in terms of using technology and its adoption to benefit a larger catchment of small dairy farmers. The respondent stated that both government officials and dairy-based academia's challenge are to engage traditional people with traditional practices in the dairy sector to adopt modern tools and practice with the rationality of each step. The present research provides recommendations for dairy farm owners, marketers, government, and policymakers to maximise production through technological innovation to meet the domestic and international demand for higher profits and sustainable market share. The present study is the first among the academic studies that contributed to applying Dependency theory and appropriate technology model in the context of the Pakistani rural dairy industry. These models conventionally pay attention to the need for technological adoption in developing countries and its applications in sector development. Whereas, based on these models very little research work is done in Pakistan, particularly in the dairy industry. The authors provide a theoretical contribution by discussing the present state of technology utilisation in Pakistani dairy SMEs, as well as the critical factors influencing technological adoption. Furthermore, this study provides a realistic procedure for rural dairy owners and regulatory agencies to collaborate on technical improvement in the industry to assure a large supply of hygienic dairy products for increased profitability, poverty alleviation and foreign exchange through quality export.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Subjects: S Agriculture > SF Animal culture
Divisions: Theses and Dissertations > Doctoral Theses
Depositing User: Lesley Cresswell
Date Deposited: 04 Jul 2022 08:43
Last Modified: 04 Jul 2022 08:43
URI: https://repository.uwtsd.ac.uk/id/eprint/2030

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